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The gem graft
Also known as an eye or a scudetto, it is certainly the most widespread grafting technique both for its easy execution and for the excellent use it offers.
This grafting mode is divided into two types:
a) with dormant bud
b) with vegetative bud
The bud grafting is practiced during the vegetative slowing down phase from August to September. Preliminarily it is necessary to clean the trunk from the leaves and any twigs, for a length of about 10 cm. Therefore, the gentle must be chosen: the branch must be well vigorous and healthy. When practicing the grafting, one must try to remove the gem avoiding to tear the tissues (if possible, when removing the gem, also remove a part of wood in order to facilitate the grafting operations).
Make an incision on the T-shaped rootstock, 1-2 cm wide and 2-3 cm long. Lift the edges of the incision very gently (with the help of the graft) and finally insert the gentile into the slot, checking the polarity.
Make sure that the transmission areas are in close contact with each other and tie gently with the help of raffia or special patches easily available on the market.
If the graft has taken place successfully after a short time, the gentile bud will give rise to a new plant. Cut the trunk only when you are sure that the graft is well rooted and proceed with cutting the rootstock above the graft, taking care to respect the bud of the graft.
The crown graft
Make a cut of the rootstock with a saw to form a flat surface. Then make a cut perpendicular to the previous one and gently lift the gearbox. Insert the previously prepared scion into the slot. The scion will be cut in "pen" shape and should be approximately 10 cm long with four or five buds.
It is advisable to put more than one scion in relation to the size of the rootstock diameter, usually two or four.
Once the graft has been made, it binds with raffia, taking care to cover the cuts with putty.
The ideal time to practice this type of graft is the month of April.